Development Deck 2021: Demographics – GOV.UK

1. Slowing international inhabitants progress fee

The worldwide inhabitants, the whole variety of people at the moment residing, stands at 7.8 billion folks as of January 2021. Though the speed of progress is predicted to gradual, the medium-variant projection estimates a world inhabitants of 8.5 billion by 2030, 9.7 billion by 2050 and 10.9 billion by 2100.

Workplace for Nationwide Statistics figures recommend the UK inhabitants will surpass 69.6 million by mid-2029 and attain 72 million by mid-2041.

The world’s inhabitants continues to develop, albeit at a slower tempo than anytime since 1950

Line graph of population change in billions from 0 to 13 over the time period 1950 to 2100.

The daring blue curve refers to estimates for the interval 1950 to 2020. The daring pink curve exhibits the medium-variant projections for the interval 2020 to 2100. The uncertainty of those projections is expressed utilizing prediction intervals across the medium variant: shaded in orange for 80% intervals and yellow for 95% intervals. The outcomes point out that the worldwide inhabitants is probably going (95%) to quantity between 8.5 and eight.6 billion in 2030, between 9.4 and 10.1 billion in 2050, and between 9.4 and 12.7 billion in 2100. Thus, uncertainty in regards to the measurement of the world’s inhabitants in 2030 and 2050 is comparatively small however will increase quickly for projections extending into the second half of the century. Though the probably situation is that the world’s inhabitants will proceed to develop all through the current century, there may be an estimated 27% chance that it might stabilise and even start to shrink someday earlier than 2100.


  1. World Inhabitants Prospects 2019: Knowledge Booklet. United Nations.
  2. Overview of the UK inhabitants: January 2021, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

2. Lowering complete international fertility, falling under pure substitute ranges

Globally, the extent of fertility is projected to lower from a mean of two.5 stay births per girl in 2019 to 2.2 in 2050 and to 1.9 in 2100. At present, almost half of the worldwide inhabitants lives in a area the place lifetime fertility sits under 2.1 births per girl – the pure substitute stage.

In 2019, the whole fertility fee in England and Wales fell to 1.65 youngsters per girl, a 2.9% lower from 2018. The charges have been lowering 12 months on 12 months since 2013.

Complete fertility (births per girl) by SDG area, estimates, 1950 to 2020, and medium-variant projections, 2020-2100

Line graph of total fertility (children per woman over the time period 1950 to 2100.

The typical variety of stay births per girls over a lifetime has fallen markedly in lots of areas over the previous a number of many years. At present, near half of the worldwide inhabitants lives in a rustic or space the place lifetime fertility is under 2.1 births per girl (roughly the extent required for populations with low mortality to have a progress fee of zero in the long term). In 2019, fertility stays above this stage, on common, in sub-Saharan Africa (4.6), Oceania (3.4), Northern Africa and Western Asia (2.9), and Central and Southern Asia (2.4). Globally, the extent of fertility is predicted to fall from a mean of two.5 stay births per girl in 2019 to 2.2 in 2050 and to 1.9 in 2100, in keeping with the medium-variant projection. The biggest reductions within the stage of complete fertility are projected to happen in sub- Saharan Africa.


  1. World Inhabitants Prospects 2019: Knowledge Booklet. United Nations.
  2. Births in England and Wales: 2019. Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

3. Doubling of worldwide over 65s by 2050

Between 2019 and 2050, the variety of individuals aged 65 years or over globally is projected to greater than double, whereas the quantity below age 25 is projected to achieve a peak after which to say no barely. It’s anticipated that by 2050 or quickly thereafter, the variety of individuals aged 65 or over will outnumber these below age 25 in Jap and South-Jap Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Europe and Northern America.

International inhabitants aged 0 to 24 and 65 or over estimates, 1950-2020

Line graph of population in billions over the time period 1950 to 2090.

Estimates for the interval 1950 to 2020 are proven as a skinny colored line, and the medium-variant projections for the interval 2020 to 2100 are in daring. The uncertainty of those projections is expressed utilizing prediction intervals across the medium variant: in darker shades for 80 per cent intervals and lighter shades for 95 per cent intervals.


  1. World Inhabitants Prospects 2019: Knowledge Booklet. United Nations.

4. Enhance in over 65s to greater than 1 / 4 of the UK inhabitants by 2066

By 2066 there may be projected to be an extra 8.6 million UK residents aged 65 years and over. The whole quantity on this group may very well be 20.4 million, as much as 26% of the whole inhabitants. The quickest enhance will probably be seen within the 85 years and over age group.

Throughout the UK, the older inhabitants will not be equally unfold throughout native areas, with older folks making up greater proportions of the populations of rural and coastal areas than city areas. 5 of the ten native authorities with the very best proportion of the inhabitants aged 65 years and over are within the South West of England.

Life expectancy at delivery (each sexes) estimates, 1950 to 2020

Bar chart of millions of population from 0 to 100 and 25 year time periods from 1966 to 2066. The lime green bars represent the under 16's age group, dark green bars 16 to 64, dark blue 65 to 74, light blue 75 to 84 and mid blue 85 and over.


  1. Dwelling longer: how our inhabitants is altering and why it issues, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics, August 2018.

5. Enhance in international life expectancy of 8 years during the last twenty years

International life expectancy at delivery reached 72.6 years in 2019, a rise of 8 years from 1990. It’s anticipated to additional enhance to 77.1 years in 2050 with will increase in each area. Sub-Saharan Africa is making the best good points, closing the life expectancy hole with enchancment in survival including almost 12 years to the common size of life since 1990, reaching 61.1 years in 2019.

Life expectancy at delivery (each sexes) estimates, 1950 to 2020

Line graph of life expectancy at birth in years from 30 to 90 over the time period 1950 to 2100.


  1. World Inhabitants Prospects 2019: Knowledge Booklet. United Nations.

6. Rising UK inhabitants however at a slower fee

In mid-2019, the inhabitants of the UK was 66.8 million. Over the 12 months to mid-2019, the inhabitants of the UK elevated by 0.5%, or 361,000 folks.

Lowering numbers of births and internet worldwide migration have resulted within the slowest fee of progress that the UK has seen in 15 years, returning it to the extent seen in mid-2004. Regardless of inhabitants progress slowing, 2019 was the thirty seventh consecutive 12 months (since 1982) that the whole UK inhabitants has elevated.

UK inhabitants continues to develop in mid-2019, however at a slower fee than any 12 months since mid-2004.

UK, 1953 to 2019, proportion annual inhabitants change

Line graph of percentage annual population change from -0.2 to 1.00 over the time period 1955 to 2019.


  1. Inhabitants estimates for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Eire: mid-2019, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

7. Worldwide migration drives main inhabitants change in some international locations

In some elements of the world, worldwide migration has turn out to be a serious part of inhabitants change. Between 2010 and 2020, 36 international locations or areas skilled a internet influx of greater than 200,000 migrants. For a number of of the highest receiving international locations, together with Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey, giant will increase have been pushed principally by refugee actions, specifically from Syria.

It’s estimated that ten international locations skilled a internet outflow of a couple of million migrants between 2010 and 2020. The very best outflows have been for Bangladesh, Syria, and Venezuela. For a lot of of those, losses are dominated by momentary labour actions, insecurity, and battle.

Internet worldwide migration (the variety of folks coming to stay in an space and the quantity leaving to stay elsewhere) by United Nations Sustainable Growth Objective area 1980 to 2020

Bar chart of net international migration in millions over four 10 year time periods from 1980 to 2020.


  1. United Nations, Division of Financial and Social Affairs, Inhabitants Division (2019). World Inhabitants Prospects 2019: Highlights. ST/ESA/SER.A/423.

8. Lengthy-term worldwide migration continues so as to add to the UK inhabitants

Within the 12 months ending March 2020, long-term worldwide migration continued so as to add to the UK inhabitants. Present finest estimates present that round 313,000 extra folks moved to the UK with an intention to remain for 12 months or greater than left the UK (internet migration). Between 2016 and 2019, long-term internet migration, immigration and emigration have remained broadly steady. Knowledge from 2019, previous to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, means that migration is altering with a rise pushed by non-EU residents arriving to check within the UK.

Internet migration has elevated since 2019.

Lengthy-term worldwide migration, UK, 12 months ending June 2010 to 12 months ending March 2020

Line graphs by thousands of people from 0 to 800 from year ending March 2011 to year ending March 2020. The dark blue line shows net migration, the yellow line emigration and mid blue/dashed line immigration.


  1. Migration Statistics Quarterly Report: August 2020, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

9. Lengthy-term decline in excessive international poverty however the fee is slowing

Globally, excessive poverty, outlined as residing on lower than $1.90 a day, dropped by a mean of 1 proportion level per 12 months from 1990 to 2015, however the fee has been slowing from 2013 onwards. Further poverty measures, launched by the World Financial institution in 2018, means that many hundreds of thousands of individuals in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa had solely narrowly escaped excessive poverty earlier than the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

COVID-19 and its related financial disaster, compounded by the consequences of armed battle and local weather change, might reverse hard-won good points in poverty discount.

International Poverty Fee on the $1.90-a-Day Poverty Line, 1990 to 2017

Line graph of percentage of the global population below the extreme poverty line over the time period 1990 to 2017.


  1. World Financial institution. 2020. Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2020: Reversals of Fortune. Washington, DC: World Financial institution. doi: 10.1596/978-1-4648-1602-4. License: Artistic Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO.

10. Lengthy-term decline in UK pensioner poverty

The proportion of pensioners in relative poverty is far decrease now than through the Nineteen Sixties. Relative poverty charges for youngsters and working-age adults rose through the Nineteen Eighties. Regardless of some discount for working-age adults with youngsters, poverty charges for all teams are a lot nearer than has traditionally been the case.

Official information on poverty through the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is not going to be accessible till 2022. Whereas it’s too quickly to measure the consequences of COVID-19 on long run poverty charges, early evaluation suggests it might current challenges. Within the UK, a person is in relative low earnings (or relative poverty) if they’re residing in a family with earnings under 60% of median family earnings in that 12 months.

Proportion of inhabitants in relative low earnings, earlier than housing prices (BHC)

Line graph of percentage from 0 to 45 for the time period 1961 to 2015/16. The lilac line refers to working-age without children, purple line working age with children, dark green line children and light green line pensioners.

Supply: Institute for Fiscal Research, utilizing information compiled from the Household Assets Survey and Household Expenditure Survey; DWP. BHC = earlier than housing prices


  1. Poverty within the UK: statistics, Home of Commons Library Briefing Paper, March 2021.

11. The world’s non secular profile is altering

The non secular profile of the world is altering, pushed primarily by variations in fertility charges and the scale of youth populations among the many world’s main religions, in addition to by folks switching faiths.

If present tendencies proceed, by 2050 the variety of Muslims will almost equal the variety of Christians all over the world. Atheists, agnostics and different individuals who don’t affiliate with any faith, although rising in some international locations, will make up a declining share of the world’s complete inhabitants. The worldwide Buddhist inhabitants is projected to be about the identical measurement it was in 2010, whereas the Hindu and Jewish populations will probably be bigger than they’re as we speak.

The Way forward for World Religions: Inhabitants Development Projections, 2010-2050

Bar graph of change in population size of the world's religions over the time period 2010 to 2050.


  1. Pew Analysis Heart, April 2, 2015, “The Way forward for World Religions: Inhabitants Development Projections, 2010-2050”.
  2. Exploring faith in England and Wales: February 2020. Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

12. England and Wales have gotten extra ethnically numerous

Between 1991 and 2001, the white ethnic group in England and Wales decreased to 91.3% from 94.1%. The development continued between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, with an extra lower to 86%. Out of all areas, London had the smallest proportion of white British folks, at 44.9%, and the North East had the very best proportion, at 93.6%. Ethnic teams usually tend to stay in city places (over 98% of the inhabitants for Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Black African communities).

Ethnic teams, England and Wales, 2011

Pie chart of percentage of ethnic groups in 2011.


  1. Regional Ethnic Range.
  2. Ethnicity and Nationwide Id in England and Wales: 2011, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

13. Quickest UK family progress has been in these containing a number of households

In 2020 there have been 19.4 million households, a rise of seven.4% over the last decade from 2010 to 2020. There have been 2.9 million lone guardian households in 2020, which accounts for 14.7% of households within the UK. The variety of folks residing alone within the UK has elevated by 4% during the last 10 years.

Households containing a number of households symbolize the smallest share of all households (1%) however are the quickest rising sort of family during the last twenty years, having elevated by two-thirds to an estimated 278,800 households in 2020.

Couple households have been the most typical family sort in 2019.

Percentages of households, by family sort, UK 2019

Bar chart of household types. Mid blue, the largest section, represents couple households, light blue one person households, dark blue lone parent households, green two or more unrelated adults and lime green multifamily households.


  1. Households and households within the UK: 2020, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.
  2. Households and households within the UK: 2019 Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.

14. Rising proportion of the UK inhabitants figuring out as lesbian, homosexual, bisexual, and transgender

The proportion of the UK inhabitants figuring out as lesbian, homosexual or bisexual (LGB) elevated from 1.6% in 2014 to 2.2% in 2018. Youthful folks, aged 16 to 24 years, have been probably to establish as LGB in 2018 (4.4%). There are regional variations, folks in London have been probably to establish as LGB (2.8%), with folks within the North East the least seemingly (1.8%).

The UK authorities estimates that there are roughly 200,000 to 500,000 trans folks within the UK. Referrals to the NHS Gender Id Service present a gentle enhance with 2,728 affected person referrals in 2019- and 2020.

Complete referrals to Gender Id Service

Table and line graph showing number of referrals to the Gender Identity Service over the period 2015-16 to 2019-20.


  1. Sexual orientation, UK: 2018, Workplace for Nationwide Statistics.
  2. Referrals to Gender Id Service monetary years 2015 to 2016 to 2019 to 2020, NHS.

Supply hyperlink