As a science journalist, I’ve learn dozens of analysis papers about COVID-19, and I’ve interviewed so many virologists, infectious illness physicians and immunologists over the previous two years that I’ve misplaced rely. However nothing ready me for what occurred after my 7-year-old daughter examined constructive for COVID-19 almost two weeks in the past.
It began the best way you would possibly anticipate: On a Sunday night, my daughter spiked a fever. The subsequent morning, we obtained an e mail informing us that she’d been uncovered to the coronavirus on Friday in school. I gave her a speedy antigen take a look at, which rapidly lit up constructive. I resigned myself to the likelihood that the entire household was, lastly, going to get COVID-19.
Better of Specific Premium
However we didn’t — not precisely. I, for one, by no means developed signs or examined constructive. On the day my daughter first examined constructive, my 11-year-old son introduced that he wasn’t feeling nicely and commenced creating traditional coronavirus signs: headache, fatigue, sore throat, runny nostril. My husband adopted two days later with a sore throat and stuffy nostril. But regardless of testing day by day for seven days straight, my husband and son by no means examined constructive for COVID-19 — together with on PCR assessments administered on my son’s fifth day of signs, and my husband’s third. (And sure, we did some throat swabs, too.)
We racked our brains as to what may need occurred: Did my husband and son get COVID, despite the fact that they by no means examined constructive? Or did they’ve one other virus that brought on similar signs and occurred to contaminate them proper after they have been uncovered to COVID-19? (Our pediatrician mentioned that was unlikely.) Why hadn’t I gotten sick in any respect? I referred to as consultants in immunology, microbiology and virology to get their take.
Vaccination modifications how your physique reacts to the virus.
One of many first questions consultants requested me was whether or not my household was vaccinated. Sure, I mentioned: My husband and I are vaccinated and boosted, and our children are vaccinated however not but boosted. It is a related query as a result of, in case you’re uncovered to the virus that causes COVID-19, “your immune system kicks into motion so much sooner in case you’re vaccinated versus not vaccinated,” mentioned Gigi Gronvall, an immunologist on the Johns Hopkins Heart for Well being Safety in Baltimore. And this speedy response modifications every thing about what occurs subsequent.
First, the swift immune response slows the speed of viral copy and unfold. “That is what the vaccines are there for — to teach your immune system in order that it will get a soar on the invaders earlier than they can replicate uncontrolled,” Gronvall mentioned. As a result of the virus doesn’t replicate as rapidly in vaccinated individuals, they might be much less prone to take a look at constructive for COVID-19 after coronavirus publicity, as a result of their immune system “retains the viral load under the extent of detection,” mentioned Juliet Morrison, a microbiologist on the College of California, Riverside.
Purchase Now | Our greatest subscription plan now has a particular value
It’s potential, then, that my husband and son did catch COVID-19, however their vaccinated immune methods fended off the an infection so nicely that they by no means had sufficient viral proteins of their nostril or throat to check constructive. And their detrimental assessments in all probability meant that they have been by no means that contagious, Morrison mentioned.
Nonetheless, my husband and son adopted the rules from the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention, which say that in case you’re vaccinated, have been uncovered to COVID-19 and develop signs however take a look at detrimental, you need to proceed to put on a masks round others for 10 days. The truth is, everybody in the home who was symptomatic stayed out of public for seven days. I ran a couple of errands however wore an N95 or KF94 masks after I did, in case I used to be incubating an an infection.
To scale back unfold between members of the family, we opened the home windows, ate outdoor and wore masks round one another after we remembered — however I’ll be trustworthy and admit that our precautions relaxed after a number of days, particularly as soon as my husband and son developed signs, too.
You possibly can really feel sick even when the virus is underneath management.
If my husband and son by no means examined constructive, why did they really feel sick? Even when a vaccinated individual doesn’t have a lot virus of their physique, they will nonetheless have highly effective COVID signs, the consultants instructed me. That’s as a result of many sickness signs — fever, malaise, runny nostril, fatigue — are literally brought on by the immune system’s response to the virus, relatively than the virus itself, Gronvall mentioned.
And as for why I felt tremendous, Morrison mentioned that maybe my immune system fought off the incoming virus so rapidly that I didn’t also have a likelihood to really feel sick.
“It sounds to me such as you have been positively uncovered,” Morrison instructed me. However, she defined, perhaps I had excessive ranges of vaccine antibodies or immune cells referred to as T cells that have been capable of kill the invading virus earlier than it had an opportunity to alert the components of my immune system that might incite signs.
All this mentioned, no one actually is aware of what occurred to me, my son or my husband.
With regards to understanding how COVID-19 impacts the physique, “there are such a lot of open questions,” mentioned Raul Andino, a virologist on the College of California, San Francisco, and folks can have totally different experiences for a lot of totally different causes. As an example, Andino mentioned, it’s potential that the virus was replicating in components of my husband’s or my son’s physique that the assessments didn’t attain. Analysis means that the coronavirus can replicate within the pancreas, coronary heart, mind, kidneys and different organs, though vaccination could scale back the prospect that the virus spreads exterior the respiratory system.
My household shouldn’t be the one one which has had the weird expertise of creating coronavirus signs however repeatedly testing detrimental. Andino mentioned that he and his colleagues have been conducting research by which they observe and repeatedly take a look at whole households after one individual within the residence assessments constructive for COVID-19.
“What we see is strictly what you described — that some individuals within the family don’t take a look at constructive,” despite the fact that they’ve signs, he mentioned. After I requested my Instagram followers in the event that they’d had an expertise like my household’s, I obtained dozens of “sure” replies and tales that sounded so much like ours.
Most individuals with COVID-19 publicity and signs will take a look at constructive, ultimately.
The consultants I talked to additionally made a very essential level: There’s a distinction between by no means testing constructive and never but testing constructive. My husband and son continued to check themselves for per week after creating signs, so my sources mentioned it was unlikely they have been ever going to check constructive. However many individuals solely take a look at for a few days and, frustratingly, you’ll be able to’t clarify conclusions from simply a few detrimental assessments.
As I mentioned earlier, when individuals are vaccinated towards COVID-19, their immune methods are primed to combat it rapidly, and so they usually develop signs sooner than unvaccinated individuals do — a couple of days earlier than they will take a look at constructive. So when individuals solely take a look at a couple of days after creating signs, their detrimental outcomes don’t essentially imply they don’t have COVID-19. But some individuals assume at that time that they don’t have the coronavirus and cease taking precautions.
“They might calm down mitigation measures when they’re nonetheless shedding fairly a little bit of virus,” Gronvall mentioned.
Given these findings, Gronvall mentioned that, ideally, individuals who have had two or three vaccine doses ought to take a look at as soon as they begin creating signs however proceed to check on day 4 or 5 of signs, as assessments that come again detrimental earlier than then could also be falsely reassuring. To do that, nonetheless, it’s essential to have entry to a number of assessments. Fortunately, now you can get a 3rd spherical of free COVID-19 assessments by means of the U.S. authorities, and there could also be free testing websites close to you, too.
As for our household, everybody has now absolutely recovered. The thriller of what transpired in our residence continues to eat at me, however it’s far outweighed by my reduction that we had such a gentle expertise — and for this, now we have our COVID-19 vaccines to thank.
This text initially appeared in The New York Occasions.
? For extra way of life information, observe us on Instagram | Twitter | Fb and don’t miss out on the most recent updates!